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Physical Education

Physical Education

Physical education is a course taught in school that focuses on developing physical fitness and the ability to perform and enjoy day-to-day physical activities with ease. Kids also develop skills necessary to participate in a wide range of activities, such as soccer, basketball, or swimming. Regular physical education classes prepare kids to be physically and mentally active, fit, and healthy into adulthood. An effective physical education program should include engaging lessons, trained P.E. teachers, adequate instructional periods, and student evaluation.

Physical Education Curriculum

Physical education helps students develop physical skills and confidence. For example, elementary and middle school curriculum includes activities that help kids obtain and improve skills, such as running, catching, throwing, and striking, applicable to sports such as baseball, volleyball, or karate. Balancing skills could be applied to dance or gymnastics.

High school curriculum should focus on lifetime sports skills like tennis or aerobic dance, with a secondary emphasis on team sports.

Physical education develops fitness and fosters the desire for lifelong participation in physical activity. high school curriculum prepares students to become highly proficient in one or more sport and/or fitness activity of their choice.

Physical education classes teach the health benefits of regular exercise and healthy food choices along with the risks of inactivity and poor diet. Students of all ages might be asked to dedicate themselves to making a few small improvements in diet and exercise for a period of six weeks. They would be expected to journal about how they feel during the process and reflect on how these changes affect performance and mood.

Physical education also helps students develop social skills. For example, team sports help them learn to respect others, contribute to a team goal, and socialize as a productive member of a team.

Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and in some Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is a class that people are required to take at school.

Studying Physical Education

Although physical education and physical movement are proven to be key components of child development, these programs are often some of the first cut from the curriculum when schools begin to focus on standardized testing. After completing this lesson, teachers or pre-service teachers should create a proposal directed at a (fictional) principal or school board member as to why the school should keep physical education in its curriculum.

Begin by having participants think about and research the benefits of physical education. Although this lesson touches on the key ideas, you will want to find and use facts or statistics. Each person should find at least five facts. The facts could either be general benefits or they could focus on one key area of benefit such as emotional health, improved classroom behavior or physical health.

After researching facts, they should put together a document that convinces someone to include physical education in the curriculum. This could be slide show, flyer, speech, etc.

If this is completed in classroom or professional development meeting, have everyone share their ideas and what they learned with the rest of the group. Afterwards, you could extend this into having a discussion about why physical education is important for all students and adults.

In modern times, Physical Education is one of the most exciting and dynamic subjects. This subject has changed dramatically during the last 50 years. It has expanded in different areas from school to non-school setting and from school-aged children to people of all ages. Earlier, physical education was generally understood as physical activities either in school time table or some free hand exercises, games, sports, racing, swimming, etc. If we look at the Indian history of physical education after Independence, a number of schemes were launched by the Government of India for schools, where every student must participate in physical activities. We can witness the growing interest in games and sports exemplified by the fitness boom and the wellness movement. Sports events receive worldwide coverage. In schools, students like sports and other forms of physical activities, which help to achieve and maintain their health and well-being.

Physical Education is an education which brings improvement in human performance with the help of physical activities. Physical activities range from simple walking to jogging, running, sprinting, hopping, jumping, climbing, throwing, pushing, pulling, kicking, etc. Education without physical activities is like body without soul. There is no controversy in giving due place to physical education and different forms of exercises in the total set-up of education. All teachings in human education begin with physical education. Physical education is also considered as movement education as the life begins from movement only. In general life is characterised by movement. The movement starts from the birth of a child, till the end of life. Mental, intellectual, emotional and social development of a growing child is dependent and closely related to physical development. A physically fit individual possesses a wellbalanced personality which is, mentally sharp, emotionally stable and socially well-adjusted. Physical education teaches how to acquire ability to develop strength, speed, endurance and coordination abilities. It also emphasises on achieving social qualities, such as, empathy, cooperation, friendliness, team spirit, and respect for rules, which are essential for healthy social relations with others. In this era of technological advancement, physical education and sports are considered essential for health, fitness, wellness, vigour and strength. The concept of physical education is not new. The fact is that it has its roots in the ancient period. At various stages in history, different people have associated different meanings to the word ‘Physical Education’. Physical Education in simple words is understood as learning with the help of movements of body and realising the benefits at mental level. It simply means education through the use of physique and physical movements and deriving the advantage for social gain. Some of the definitions given by well known authors are given here to understand and for the ready reference of the students.

Definitions of Physical Education In ancient India, a sanskrit adage stated that “Sharir Servarth Sambhavo Dehe”. The National plan of physical education (1956) states that, “Physical education should aim at making the child physically, mentally and emotionally fit and developing personal and social qualities which will help to live happily with others and build a good citizen”. It further emphasises that the development of the total personality and achievement of worthy citizenship motivated for service should be the outcomes of physical education.

According to the Ministry of Education and National Planning for Physical Education and Recreation, “The aim of physical education must be to make every child physically, mentally and emotionally fit and also to develop in him personal and social qualities that will help to live happily with others. Physical education programme should also aim to build good citizens of the country.”

According to the Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation, “Physical education is the process of education through physical activities. It is the development of the total personality of the child to its fullness and perfection in body, mind and spirit.”

Sports and physical education are an integral part of the learning process, and need to be included in the evaluation of performance. A nation-wide infrastructure for physical education, sports and games are required in the educational field. The infrastructure consists of playfields, equipments, coaches and teachers of physical education. Available open spaces in urban areas can be used for playgrounds. Efforts should be made to establish sports institutions and hostels where specialised attention can be given to sports activities and sports-related studies, along with normal education. Appropriate encouragement should be given to those who have talent in sports and games. Due focus should be given on indigenous traditional games.

Charles A. Bucher has defined Physical Education as an “Integral part of total educational process, is a field of endeavour which has its aim — the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realise these outcomes.”

According to American Alliance for health, physical education, recreation and dance, “Physical Education is education through physical activities which are selected and carried as with regard to value in human growth, development and behaviour”.

Finally, it can be concluded that the development of all personality traits like, physical, social, mental, emotional, and moral takes place through various programmes of physical education.

Aims and Objectives If you are doing physical exercises or playing any game regularly, you must have realised their importance. The aim of physical education is to target the total development of human personality. In physical education, the final aim is to make every human being physically, mentally and emotionally fit and also to provide each kind of opportunity to them, so that they can develop such personal and social qualities which will help them to live happily with others and shape themselves as true citizens of the country.

Efforts are needed to provide adequate facilities and ample time for the individuals and the groups to participate in situations that are physically wholesome, mentally stimulating and socially sound. Through physical education one can strive to achieve the following aims and objectives.

Motor Development

The objective of motor development refers to the neuromuscular relationship of nerve or nerve fibre to the one that connects the central nervous system with muscles. This in turn enables the movement of the body. To enhance the ability of the body to act, react and interact, it is necessary to exercise the muscles and nerves. In other words, physical development of a person is the foremost objective of physical education. Physical education is related to physical activities, which when performed, have an effect on various organ systems of our body. It leads to the improvement in size, shape, efficiency, etc., of various organs of these systems. An individual who is having good motor movements may perform daily routine work very effectively without undue

fatigue and laziness and feels confident in life. It also promotes sound health which enables an individual to become a valuable asset for the society and nation.

Motor development can be possible through participating in different kinds of physical activity programmes like, games, sports, yoga, dance, etc.

Mental development refers to the ability to think and solve problems effectively. Knowledge received by participating in physical activities about body movement, health, fitness, sanitation, nutrition, disease prevention and others may contribute to an individual’s mental development. A mentally developed person takes wise decisions at the right time and in a right spirit. Mental development objectives deal with a person’s ability to think correctly, act wisely and skillfully in all situations of life. Various activities conducted in physical education classes not only require physical strength but also need mental alertness, deep concentration, and precise movements. In this manner, physical education also sharpens the mind and makes it more efficient.

Emotional Development

This refers to a psychological situation of body and mind. Emotion is a drive to do something. Emotion covers experiences, such as, fear, anger, joy, love, sorrow, etc. It is usually a feeling which has specially become intense. For example, joy means intense pleasure. A child needs to develop confidence, a feeling of belongingness, and eliminate negative feelings through participating in games, sports, yoga, etc.

Social Development

This objective of physical education refers to the feeling of belongingness, adjustment of group living, social poise, social relationships, and social adjustment. Physical activities provide such opportunities to the children to fulfil basic needs like, recognition, self-respect, belongingness, and love. When these needs are fulfilled, the individual becomes a well-adjusted social person. While participating in physical activities including games and sports, an individual acquires social qualities, such as, cooperation, friendship, courtesy, empathy, team spirit, democratic living, sportspersonship, etc. These qualities are essential for social development.

Moral Development

Every game has a set of rules and regulations and it is the duty of each player to obey them. The players know that disobedience of any rule is a moral crime that can result in their expulsion from the team. Therefore, obedience of these rules becomes the moral duty of each player. Participation in games helps in moral development and equips them to differentiate between right and wrong with honesty. Hence, physical education also plays an important role in the moral development of a person.

Need and Importance of Physical Education in the Modern Society

The modern researches have proven that the views of Greek philosophers Aristotle and Socrates in considering athletics as complete education is correct. It has been scientifically observed that adequate exercise of limbs is essential for disciplining one’s mind in the right spirit. Regular exercises and playing games help the body and mind to deal with the modern day silent killers, such as, stress, strain, worry, anxiety and tension. The need and importance of physical education may be understood in several ways which describes the different kinds of requirements for various sections of the society

The need and importance of physical education for every section of people in the modern society can be understood from the points given below—

• Optimum development of child’s physical growth

• Intellectual development

• Emotional development

• Social development

• Personal development

• Character building

• Physical fitness

• Development as a disciplined citizen of the country

• Neuromuscular development

• Cultural development

• Developing leadership qualities

• Healthy and safe environment

• Development of national integration

• Better international understanding

Sports and games play an important role in the development of human personality. They are no less important than food and fresh water. It is interesting to note that there are many nurseries and training centres for games in most of the developed countries.

Physical Education is "education through the physical". It aims to develop students’ physical competence and knowledge of movement and safety, and their ability to use these to perform in a wide range of activities associated with the development of an active and healthy lifestyle. It also develops students’ confidence and generic skills, especially those of collaboration, communication, creativity, critical thinking and aesthetic appreciation. These, together with the nurturing of positive values and attitudes in PE, provide a good foundation for students’ lifelong and life-wide learning.
Kids, as well as adults, benefit from regular exercise. Health benefits from regular exercise include: stronger muscles and bones, increased coordination and energy, and decreased risk of developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. For most kids, exercise means being physically active during play, recess, and physical education class, also known as P.E. Physical education contributes to each child's total growth and development.

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